台灣精品酒店樣貌真是多元化啊!

精品酒店起源於1980年代的北美,發展至今才不過30幾年的光景,這些典型的精品酒店屬於規模較小的獨立非品牌酒店,其佈置呈現出主題式、時髦與理想風格,所以,精品酒店又稱為精品式的「設計師」酒店。不過,現代的精品酒店早已與最初的定義與設計大相逕庭!尤其是精品酒店到了台灣,經營風格大多走日本「愛之旅館」(Japan’s Love hotel)[註一]方式;除此之外,甚至連商務旅館、汽車旅館或走設計師風格路線的旅館也被稱為精品酒店,還真是讓精品酒店失焦了啊!
註一:愛之旅館是典型供愛侶短暫三小時內停留或過夜之用的旅館,因其夠隱密,可讓對對愛侶從事和性有關的活動。第一個這樣旅館於1968年在大阪市誕生。愛之旅館通常最重要的識別標誌是愛心並有休息和過夜的房價表。登記後三小時內都屬於休息時段,而且通常不需要預約訂房。這些旅館大多為了嫖客而存在的,有時也會吸引愛侶或一些低消費的旅客來住宿。

日本的愛之旅館,紅色愛心是最重要的識別標誌。

要談台灣所謂的「精品酒店」得從日本的「愛之旅館」和美式的汽車旅館說起,這些旅館至今仍保留日本與美國這兩類型旅館的精髓呢!

從美國風行到日本的汽車旅館 已脫離原創的單純需求
省道和美國高速公路系統發展自1920年代,長途道路旅行變得越來越普及,開長途車的旅客需求很簡單,就是過夜的住宿地點要很容易進出主要道路,以及低廉的房價。這樣的需求快速帶動了汽車旅館(Motel)概念的成長。汽車旅館是為開汽車旅行的人設計的旅館,通常附有停車場。亞瑟˙海諾曼(Arthur Heineman)於1925年創造出世界第一個位於美國加州聖路易斯奧比斯波(San Luis Obispo)的汽車旅館“Motel Inn”。該汽車旅館最初名為「摩鐵里程碑」(Milestone Mo-Tel)。創意十足的海諾曼將汽車(motor)與旅館(hotel)兩個字合在一起,又將之縮短為“mo-tel”,創造了新詞“motel”。

世界第一個汽車旅館

在日本,因東西方文化差異,精品酒店被視為愛之旅館!為什麼會這樣呢?要了解兩者之間的關係是要有點進程的,先是在二戰後,上野(Ueno)出現了「情愛酒店」(tsurekomi yado)這個名詞,後來當妓院變成非法行業後,業者將之轉為地下活動,適逢汽車旅館從美國流行到日本,業者開始想趁勢追擊,竟將情愛酒店與汽車旅館合而為一。這個「概念」竟然也慢慢地從日本推廣到一些東亞國家去了,比如台灣、中國大陸、新加坡和香港!

日本「愛之旅館」與精品酒店的關係
愛之旅館的歷史可朔至江戶時期(Edo Period),為了特殊目的關係,在江戶和京都兩地開始出現有隱密入口及祕密通道且不引人注意的出口的客棧或茶室。而現代的愛之旅館則由茶室發展出來的,大多是妓女與客人,或是愛侶會前往使用。

這些旅館通常都集中於城區、工業區或近高速公路的市郊。愛之旅館的外觀很有特殊風格,有的像城堡、幽浮或船,外觀大多過分裝飾且夜晚閃爍著霓虹燈。有些愛之旅館則非常普通,其窗戶大都很小且明顯地被覆蓋住,甚至有的沒有窗戶!

二戰後,情愛酒店這個名詞被採納了,原先是由一些家庭單純地提供幾個房間給人住宿。但首次出現於企業式經營是在東京上野附近,部分原因是出自佔領軍(Occupation forces)的要求,並於1958年當廢除合法賣淫後,這行業就開始轉入地下而蓬勃發展起來。不久後,美國盛行的汽車旅館風吹到日本來,腦筋動得快的商人便有了更多的想法。

日本傳統的情愛酒店

幸好業者自己覺得那個工作太平淡無奇,漸漸不再使用原來的名詞,這些敏銳的旅館經營者就像手中握著千變萬化的調色盤,他們以更時尚感的名詞取代了這名詞,像是浪漫酒店(romance hotel)、時尚酒店(fashion hotel)、休閒旅館(leisure hotel)、娛樂酒店(amusement hotel)、情侶酒店(couples hotel)和精品酒店(boutique hotel)。

同樣的概念也出現於中南美洲的瓜地馬拉、墨西哥、智利、阿根廷、多明尼加、巴西、波多黎各、哥倫比亞等地的汽車旅館。就連汽車旅館的發源地美國和鄰國加拿大,在一些低收入市區也出現像日本愛之旅館之類的汽車旅館。

台灣精品酒店樣貌多元化
精品酒店到了台灣又變成什麼樣的風貌呢?有沒有像歐美那樣「真正」的精品酒店呢?有!但少之又少,比如小西華、西華、怡亨酒店、台北菁品行館和時光對白旅店……等。

上:小西華(精品酒店)/下左:沐蘭精品汽車旅館;下右:豪麗旺商務旅館

台灣因受到日本殖民半世紀以及美軍駐台的影響,早已成為既哈日又崇美的社會,許多經濟與文化活動均深受日美兩國的影響!就旅館業而言,受到愛之旅館與美式汽車旅館在日本合而為一成功經營的影響,很快這種混合經營模式就席捲全台了! 台灣的賓館、旅館或汽車旅館大多以這樣的方式經營;而精緻的商務旅館或別緻的汽車旅館竟也自稱為精品酒店!

 

 
資料參考來源:

  1. Motel [Online], http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Motel
  2. Boutique hotels in Taipei [Online], http://goo.gl/JedqqD
  3. 台灣 精品酒店 [Online], http://goo.gl/rBG8xU
  4. Love Hotel [Online], http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Love_hotel
  5. Steph, Unique Boutique: 13 of Japan’s Most Strangely Stylish Hotels [Online], http://weburbanist.com/2011/01/31/13-of-japans-most-stylish-strange-hotels/

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