<全球旅館星級評鑑制度之緣起 PART III>瑞士旅館分級制度是全球第一個私部門分級系統 深深影響並啟發了其他歐洲國家的星級制度

有些國家是由僅有的公共標準來進行評鑑,例如比利時、丹麥、希臘、義大利、馬爾他、荷蘭、葡萄牙、西班牙和匈牙利,這些國家都有法律來規範旅館評鑑,使其更精煉化。德國、奧地利和瑞士的旅館星級評鑑則交由專業且受敬重的旅館業協會來進行,他們使用的是五星系統。

雖然美國《汽車旅遊指南》(或稱富士比旅遊指南)於1958年創設了全球最早的旅館星級評鑑系統,不過,這評鑑制度並非由政府或旅館專業協會建立,而是出自媒體!21年後,瑞士旅館協會(Swiss Hotel Association)於1979年制訂了瑞士的旅館分級制度,使之成為世界上第一個非官方且是專業旅館協會所建立的正式旅館分級系統,是全世界第一個私部門分級系統!該協會的成員都是旅館老闆,是世界上最專業的飯店業組織。

瑞士星級酒店與瑞士旅舍
該制度在國際上很多重要場合被認可,也被像是德國與奧地利等其他國家引用作為自己分級制度的發展基礎。瑞士旅館星級分級標準一直都在調整,以符合國際品質的更高要求與不時改變的顧客需求。所以瑞士旅館協會每五年都會再修正一次,並以此來做檢視;這樣每五年的旅館分級評鑑制度始於1990年。瑞士的基本分類是很透明的,且讓人產生信任與安全感,在各式各樣的標識和品質聲明中是相當值得信賴的指路牌!

在此基本分類裡,旅館的分級從一至五顆星,或者有些像是「瑞士旅舍」(Swiss Lodge)的中小型公司就不適用於星級制度,那些公司只提供早餐,像是“Garni”(類似起源於英國的Bed and Breakfast『住宿加早餐酒店』,簡稱B&B)。在每個星級分類最佳的等級上都會額外在標註高級(Superior)。瑞士旅館協會的星級評鑑制度至今已成功發展了30餘年,這是瑞士最傲人的典範,並成功地發展至全世界各地。

 

B & B(圖左)與瑞士旅舍(圖右)皆不適用瑞士旅館的星級評鑑!

與瑞士旅館協會分進合擊的瑞士分級

「瑞士分級」(Swiss Classifiation)的創辦人與執行長路易西斯˙庫森(Luzius Kuchen)本身兼具酒店經理、國家科學家與旅遊局(Switzerland Tourism, ST)前行銷諮詢顧問,他在2007年以身為瑞士旅館分級龍頭,負責頒發星星標誌給受評合格的旅館──在2007年至2012年期間,他擔任瑞士旅館分級局長(director of Swiss Hotel Classification)之職。該創辦人為滿足市場的需要,才於2012年創立健身房、髮廊與酒店的「瑞士分級」──瑞士第一個針對獨立星級評鑑的標準制定能力、審核、定位和認證的獨立機構,他主要負責瑞士新旅館分級的手段與實施

.

德國受瑞士旅館星級制度啟發才創立正式的分級制度

在聯邦政府的促使下,德國餐廳與旅館協會(German Hotel and Restaurant Association,簡稱DEHOGA)於1949年成立,六十多年來就已經對德國境內所有豪華酒店、小吃店和學校與工廠內的餐廳做分級。不過,受到瑞士分級制度的啟發,該協會在1996年才創立了正式的官方旅館分級制度, 不同的公司都有接受「德國酒店分級」(German Hotel Classification)至少270項標準的檢驗,該制度已在德國境內18區分級機構行之有年。其分級是這樣的:一顆星代表的是觀光客級(Tourist)、兩顆星是標準(Standard)、三顆星是舒適(Comfor)、四顆星是第一級(First Class),五顆星是奢華(Luxury),並在星星數旁標註高級(Superior)字樣。

德國分級制度向來以嚴格標準著稱且受到市場與消費者信賴,在2005年與2010年初期,所有的標準均受到檢驗和再次的更新,因此新的標準目錄是重要的基礎,以便能提供客人與消費者透明化、高品質和可靠的資訊。

德國的這項分級制度的成功間接影響了周邊的國家,甚至於2009年創立的「歐洲酒店星級聯盟」也是受到德國這套分級制度的影響而產生的。

歐洲酒店星級聯盟創造了一套檢驗標準與程序
2004年,共有來自奧地利、捷克、德國、匈牙利、荷蘭、瑞典和瑞士……等24個歐洲國家的39個旅館協會,成立「歐洲的旅館、餐廳&咖啡館」(Hotels, Restaurants & Cafés in Europe,簡稱HOTREC)組織。2007年,HOTREC發起歐洲餐旅品質(European Hospitality Quality,簡稱EHQ)計畫,從那時起已經承認現有的國家檢測機構對酒店所做的分級。2009年,HOTREC會員協會決定在HOTREC贊助人身分下創造「歐洲酒店星級聯盟」(European Hotelstars Union),其目標在於要為歐洲旅館分級建立一條通用的制度──所有聯盟成員國都使用同一套評鑑標準與程序。2011年起,瑞士分級創辦人路易西斯‧庫森以「歐洲酒店星級聯盟」顧問身份將這套制度推廣至歐洲其他國家,陸續加入的有愛沙尼亞、拉脫維亞、立陶宛、盧森堡、馬爾他、比利時、丹麥和希臘等國,自此加入酒店星級聯盟的國家不斷地增加。

不過,歐洲也有國家只採用自己的旅館分級制度,比如法國、德國和瑞士。

最後,我們來看看法國的旅館星級評鑑制度,這套制度是由法國觀光局制訂的。起初是四星制(外加『豪華』Luxus的L),現在已於2009年改成五星制了!只要是旅館、旅遊住宅(tourist residences)、假期度假村(holiday villages)、戶外住宿(例如露營區和假日公園)、附家具的出租度假公寓(furnished holiday rentals)和住宿加早餐酒店(B&B)等在法國都是主要提供觀光客住宿之處,除了B&B之外,所有的住宿處都必須參與官方評鑑,授予一至五顆星的分級標誌。與瑞士一樣,法國也是每五年作一次評鑑,以確保每個住宿處的服務品質與舒適度!

 

其他國家像是南非,對旅館分級有嚴格的規定,是由南非旅遊分級協調會(Tourist Grading Council of South Africa)制訂標準與進行評鑑,最高可授予五顆星。

 

 

 

~待續~

<全球旅館星級評鑑制度之緣起>系列文章延伸閱讀:

<全球旅館星級評鑑制度之緣起PART 1>台灣旅館評鑑摘梅花換星星 只為發展自我品牌與國際接軌
<全球旅館星級評鑑制度之緣起PART II>全球最早的旅館星級評鑑制度產生於美國 星星越多越奢華
<全球旅館星級評鑑制度之緣起PART III>瑞士旅館分級制度是全球第一個私部門分級系統 深深影響並啟發了其他歐洲國家的星級制度
<全球旅館星級評鑑制度之緣起PART IV-完結篇>瑞士哪些飯店管理學校的校舍是星級酒店裝修而成的?

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