Michelin Guide 米其林餐廳評鑑

大家都對「Michelin Guide 米其林餐廳評鑑』不陌生,但大家知道他是如何開始的嗎?

事實上,米其林餐廳評鑑出自『米其林輪胎公司』!

michelin

(圖取自網路)

1900年,汽車工業才剛在歐洲開始時,整個法國不到3000輛汽車,就連首都巴黎也僅有1000輛左右的車子。雖然當時觀光旅遊業尚未萌芽,但米其林公司的兩位創辦人安德烈‧米其林(André Michelin)和艾德華‧米其林(Édouard Michelin)已經看到了前所未有的遠景:

「如果汽車工業帶動了汽車旅遊,他們的輪胎就能越賣越好!」

因此,他們發行了第一本由米其林輪胎公司所出的米其林指南,裡面提供給汽車駕駛的旅遊資訊包含:火車站、加油站、修車站、郵局、電報站、電話站、藥房等,主要是讓開車者遇到困難時能盡快得到幫助;當然,”旅館餐廳”也是指南裡的重要資訊,當時已經有開始在幫餐廳標星星等級,但這只是反應價格,並非品質的認定。重點是,集結這麼多資訊的米其林指南竟然是贈送的!

1900

(圖片取自網路)

1904年第五版的米其林指南開始將餐廳及旅館分出等級,開始接受廣告刊登並附贈地圖,希望米其林指南的功能越來越完善。而第一次大戰時,米其林指南中斷出版,直到1919年戰後才重新出版,這時的發行量已經高達七萬五千本;然而在1920年時,安德烈‧米其林(André Michelin)在一家修車廠看到自己精心編排的米其林指南竟然被拿來墊東西,意識到免費反而會被人視為沒價值的東西,因此決定不再贈送,改成標價出售。

直至1933年,我們所熟悉的米其林餐廳星級評鑑制度才逐漸建立完整,但也只是簡單的評鑑標準為「菜餚的品質」:三顆星等於非常好、兩顆星等於出色、一顆星等於值得推薦。

michelin-man-michelin-guide

米其林餐廳評鑑工作都是以人力執行,長時間派出大量的評鑑人員以匿名方式到各個可被列入指南的餐廳試吃,直到對餐廳了解到一定的程度後,才會告知身份,進而取得更詳盡的資料、獲得參觀廚房及其它設施的權利,並對業者的營運方式做全面的考察;這一切花費都是由公司出資,絕不接受招待,換句話說,餐廳能獲得幾顆星是用金錢買不到的,只能靠業者自己本身的努力及持之以恆才能換來米其林指南對餐廳的介紹及評等。

(圖片取自網路)

米其林餐廳評鑑標準依據五大重點:

  1. 品質 (The quality of product)
  2. 烹飪與調味技巧(The mastery of flavor and cooking)
  3. 整體菜餚特色(The 「personality」 of the cuisine)
  4. 物有所值(The value for the money)
  5. 服務與口味水準的穩定度(The consistency between visits)

 

米其林指南分成一般評等及星級評等兩種:

一般評等分成三種:

一般評等符號意義

  1. 叉匙(依照餐廳的表現,給予一個到五個叉匙符號)[註1.2]
  • 五個叉匙:頂級豪華並表現傳統風味 (Luxury in the traditional style)
  • 四個叉匙:頂級水準 (Top class comfort)
  • 三個叉匙:非常令人感到舒適 (Very comfortable)
  • 二個叉匙:令人感到舒適 (Comfortable)
  • 一個叉匙:舒適 (Quite comfortable)
  1. 米其林頭(米其林推薦的道地小餐館,提供不錯的食物和適當的價格。)

有此標誌的餐廳,在巴黎以提供一餐價格在33歐元以下;巴黎以外的餐館以提供一餐價格在25歐元以下。

  1. 兩個銅板 (稱為”Piecettes”,小銅板之意)

有此標誌的餐廳以提供不超過16歐元的簡單餐飲。

星級評等

星等符號意義1

1936年,米其林提出了對星級的詳細說明:[註3]

一顆星:值得停下車品嚐的好餐廳。 (Une très bonne table dans sa catégorie.)

1 star

(圖片取自網路)

兩顆星:一流的廚藝,並提供極佳的餐酒搭配,是值得繞道前往的好餐廳。 (Table excellente, mérite un detour.)

2 star

 (圖片取自網路)

三顆星:完美絕頂的廚藝,手藝超絕的美食搭配著精選的上等佐餐酒,零缺點服務和經典雅緻的用餐環境,是值得專程駕車前往的好餐廳。 (Une des meilleures tables, vaut le voyage.)

3 star

(圖片取自網路)

米其林的餐廳星級評等就像飯店的星級評等一樣,依照著你能提供的服務項目來增加星級數;第一顆星的頒給標準就是以「食物的品質」來決定接下就是以餐廳的服務品質內部裝潢餐桌擺設餐具品質上餐順序酒窖品質及大小來決定。當然,要獲得二顆星及三顆星都是非常不容易的,許多廚師都以獲得三顆星為畢生奮鬥的終極目標,這同樣也是代表自身廚藝的最高肯定呢!

註1:如果以紅色代替一般的黑色叉匙標誌,表示這家餐廳的環境特別令人感到愉悅悠閒(Particularly pleasant establishments)。

註2:叉匙標誌是在1913年設計出來以代表餐廳等級,後來才出現星級為餐飲最高等級標誌。

註3: 因米其林是以出產輪胎為主,所以以駕車做為比喻(底線部分)。

資料參考: 

<How The Michelin Guide Made A Tire Company The World’s Fine Dining Authority>

 http://www.businessinsider.co.id/history-of-the-michelin-guide-2014-10/#.VlLg-3YrKUk

<維基百科: 米其林>

https://zh.wikipedia.org/zh-tw/%E7%B1%B3%E5%85%B6%E6%9E%97

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